Hirakud Dam The Longest Man Made Dam in the World
2015-08-27 Posted By:Infrabazaar
Hirakud Dam is built across the Mahanadi River, about 15km from Sambalpur in the state of Orissa in India. The Hirakud Dam was built in 1957. This dam is one of the longest man made dams in the world and one of the world’s longest earthen dams. The length of the dam is about 16 mi (26 km) and 55 km long. Hirakud Dam is the first major multipurpose river valley project that started after the India’s Independence.
Shri M. Visveswararya had proposed this before devastating floods of 1937. A detailed investigation report was submitted for storage of reservoirs in Mahanadi basin to tackle the problem of floods in Mahanadi delta. In 1945 under the President of India Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and labors members decided to invest in the prospective benefits of controlling and building the Mahanadi Dam for the multipurpose use. The Central Waterways, Irrigation and Navigation Commission took up the work.
The Hirakud Dam is a composite structure of earth, concrete and stonework, about 15 km from north of Sambalpur. It has length of around 24 km including dykes and stands across the river Mahanadi. Originally the dam length was about 4.8 km between two hills; on the left side Lamdungri and at the right Chandili Dunguri. The dam edge is about 21km of earthen dykes on the both left and right sides, closing the low saddles beyond the adjacent hills. Hirakud Dam is the biggest artificial lake in Asia, with a reservoir holding around 743 km² at complete capacity, and water’s edge is about 639 km. On each side of the hills two observation towers has been built, one tower named as “Gandhi Minar” and second one is “Nehru Minar”. Both the observation towers represent breathtaking views of the lake.
The Hirakud Dam control floods in Mahanadi delta and irrigates 7,500,000 hectares of land and hydroelectricity is also generated. The Hirakud Dam regulates 83,400 km² (32,200 mi²) of Mahanadi's drain water.
In 1956 around Rs 12 cores was provided for compensation towards payment to affected people but after review the amount was reduced to Rs 9.5 cores and the total compensation was provided to the people those were evacuated from their grate and homes without any compensation.
The Dam currently has 98 flood gates, 64 sliding gate and 34 crest gates to release flood water. However the CWC has suggested raising water discharge capacity of dam by 1.5 times facing to the Sambalpur. About 30 gates had to be opened releasing 8 lakh cusec of water. The new spillway(s) would release water into Jhari Jor beyond Chipilima to avoid flooding of the city.